100 Light

How big is a dying star's damage radius?

If a star, say, 100 light years away died 99 years ago, would we be affected next year by a huge
black hole/supernova etc? Or is that too far for us to be effected?

Stars that undergo a supernova explosion pose a threat to our existence.

The threat diminishes with distance. And is due to at least 3 separate things :

1) radiation (eg gamma ray burst) that travels to us at the speed of light. We'd have little or no warning of this. It would mainly affect orbiting satellites, not the earth's surface

2) high energy particles - that would travel anywhere from 30% to 99% of light speed.
There would be one of more distinct peaks. But we would have a warning time. For 100 light years distance, at 90% of light speed, the particles would be arriving 10 years after the initial explosion to 30% and a time delay of 70 years.
These particles could strip away the earth's atmosphere.

3) solid objects. Pieces of iron and other material that could be traveling at speeds of up to 30% of light speed. We don't have much (any) data on this to know what we could expect. But even a particle of 1 kg mass would result in a high energy explosion.

We are pretty sure that a 100 light year distance would be problematic for earth to survive. And at 1000 light years we are equally sure we would survive with n problem.

But supernova explosions are not symmetrical. More energy is directed in certain directions than others. Thus we might survive an explosion that was only 100 light years away.

We are waiting for a supernova to see what actually happens.
We have not been able to study one in detail, because the last one in our galaxy occurred in 16o4, and even that was 20,000 light years from us. Particles traveling at 50% of light speed won't get here for 10,000 years.

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